This is an updated glossary based on our years in Sunbelt Software as an antivirus developer, and in KnowBe4 as largest worldwide platform in the 十大电子游戏平台 and simulated phishing space. 世界十大电子游戏平台把它作为一种资源来分享. 每个字母以字母顺序的首字母缩略词开头,然后是完整的单词. (最后更新于2021年12月14日)


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自动票据交换所,做电子资金转帐的公司. 这一领域有大量的网络犯罪和欺诈行为.


Access Control List. 访问控制是一种允许或拒绝访问的系统或技术. 密码和其他类型的ID都是访问控制. 在Windows中,一个 access control list (ACL)是访问控制表项(ACE)的列表。. Each ACE in an ACL identifies a trustee and specifies the access rights allowed, denied, 或者为受托人审计.


活动目录.  AD is a directory service (a database really) that a network administrator uses to control network security. 服务器运行 活动目录 称为域控制器吗. AD对所有用户进行认证和授权, computers and software in a Windows network—assigning and enforcing security policies for all computers and installing or updating software. 看到维基百科.  如果您想让自己的软件与活动目录通信, 使用所谓的“轻量级目录访问协议”(See LDAP futher below ).  In our case, 世界十大电子游戏平台希望与客户的AD(使用LDAP)通信,以同步新用户和离开公司的人的变化,世界十大电子游戏平台这边的用户数据库,这样就有更少或没有用户管理留给世界十大电子游戏平台客户的系统管理员做.

另一个与活动目录相关的词是“OU”或“组织单位”,因为世界十大电子游戏平台允许用户通过安全组和OU指定他们想要同步的内容. 下面是一个很好的定义: An organizational unit (OU) is a subdivision within an 活动目录 into which you can place users, groups, computers, 和其他组织单位. 您可以创建组织单元来镜像组织的功能或业务结构. 


Acceptable Use Policy. 一种策略,它定义了网络用户可以执行的操作. 可用于私人组织、互联网服务提供商和公共实体(如图书馆).


在世界十大电子游戏平台的世界里,反病毒的简称不是(音频/视觉). 一种监视计算机或网络以识别所有主要类型的恶意软件并防止或包含恶意软件事件的程序.


应用程序编程接口. An 应用程序编程接口 (API) is an interface given to a software program so that other software can interact with it, 就像软件有一个用户界面,让人可以与之交互一样. 这是另一种看待它的方式:API,简称 应用程序编程接口, is a series of rules. 更确切地说,它是一个信息中间商. api允许应用程序从软件中提取信息,并在自己的应用程序中使用这些信息, 有时也用于数据分析. In the plainest terms, an API is a blueprint that enables "your stuff" to talk to and work with "their stuff." 看到维基百科.


Short:高级持续威胁(Advanced Persistent Threat, APT),即延长威胁, stealthy attacks that are generally difficult to detect and may go on for many months before they are discovered. APT是一种具有针对性、持续性、闪避性和先进性的威胁. 大多数恶意软件和APT之间的一个关键区别是ATP的持久能力——也就是说, 在采集和提取数据的同时,可以逃避网络安全控制的检测.

Long:对手拥有先进的技术水平和大量的资源,使其能够利用多种攻击媒介创造机会以达到其目标.g., cyber, physical, etc.). 这些目标通常包括在目标组织的信息技术基础结构中建立和扩展立足点,以获取信息, 破坏或阻碍任务的关键方面, program, or organization; or positioning itself to carry out these objectives in the future. The advanced persistent threat: (i) pursues its objectives repeatedly over an extended period of time; (ii) adapts to defenders’ efforts to resist it; and (iii) is determined to maintain the level of interaction needed to execute its objectives.


地址空间布局随机化. A security feature in the Windows OS which randomly assigns executable code to 256 potential RAM locations, 试图防止缓冲区溢出攻击.


The brand name of a group of Microsoft technologies that allow for special additional features in HTML. 使用“控件”实现ActiveX, 但是,使用这些工具可以为黑客打开一扇门,因为它会使攻击面更大.


A type of scam in which a cybercriminal persuades a potential victim to help transfer a substantial amount of money to an account. The victim is offered a commission for facilitating the transaction or multiple transactions. 许多尼日利亚骗局,也被称为419骗局,是预付款欺诈的一个主要例子.


Fast and flexible software development methodology that is used by KnowBe4 for rapid development of our products. 看到维基百科.


广告软件是任何自动播放的软件, displays, or downloads advertisements to a computer after the software is installed on it or while the application is being used. Some types of adware are also spyware and can be classified as privacy-invasive, 还可以被网络犯罪分子用来窃取机密信息.


A 的规则集 在解决问题的操作中应遵循. 实际上,你可以将算法用于任何类型的计算机调试或处理恶意软件. Here is a YouTube的例子 一种非常流行的加密算法:SHA-256.


Angler phishing is the practice of masquerading as a customer service account on social media, 希望能接触到不满的消费者.


The 反钓鱼工作小组 (APWG) is an international consortium that brings together businesses affected by phishing attacks, 安全产品和服务公司, law enforcement agencies, government agencies, 贸易协会, 区域国际条约组织和通信公司. 看到维基百科.




The “攻击表面” of a software environment is all the points (the “attack vectors”) where an attacker can try to penetrate the network. 在维基百科. An organization’s “phishing 攻击表面” is all the email addresses of that domain that can be found by the bad guys.


简单来说,“攻击向量”就是进入网络的任何方式、方向或方法. Some examples of attack vectors can be un-patched software, badly written code that allows for 缓冲区溢出, or 社会工程 using  infected phishing attachments.



一个由安德里亚斯·马克思领导的德国组织, 为反病毒厂商和像PCWorld这样的杂志提供独立的反病毒测试. 他们在这里.


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Short for Business Email Compromise, which is also known as CEO Fraud. Also See EAC and VEC.


The FBI has coined a this "deepfake attack vector" name: Business Identity Compromise, it is BEC on steroids.


Border Gateway Protocol. BGP经常被比作互联网上的GPS导航服务, enabling infrastructure players to swiftly and automatically determine routes for sending and receiving data across the complex digital topography. 就像你最喜欢的GPS地图工具一样,BGP也有 怪癖和缺陷 that don't usually cause problems, but can occasionally land you in major traffic jams.

BGP hijack

BGP hijacks (Border Gateway Protocol) take place when an ISP announces the wrong Internet route to a specific destination. 在大多数情况下, BGP劫持是意外, 如输入错误, and result in worldwide Internet providers sending large swaths of traffic to the wrong servers.

But there are also incidents when malicious ISPs intentionally announce a wrong BGP route in order to hijack traffic meant for particular targets, 比如关键的DNS服务器, 金融服务, 政府网站, 军事领域, and more. 这些恶意BGP劫持的目的是让这些目标的流量通过恶意ISP的网络, 它可以嗅出内容或进行中间人攻击. 例如,这真的发生过. 所有前往华盛顿特区的交通在几个小时内都被转往中国. 猜猜是谁在嗅探数据... 


Browser Helper Object. 这是微软精心设计的, BHO的目的是作为“插件”添加功能(如工具栏)到Internet Explorer. 不幸的是, 恶意软件的作者也利用BHO的力量达到其他目的,比如传播恶意软件.


Bring Your Own Device. It’s your network, but it’s their personal device, either a phone, tablet or laptop. What could go wrong? Mobile devices are a fabulous way for hackers to penetrate the network using 社会工程 techniques. Mobile device security has not kept up with mobile device malware and if hackers can infect a mobile device, 这是侵入网络的简单方法.


Baiting means dangling something in front of a victim so that they take action. 它可以是通过点对点或社交网站,以(色情)电影下载的形式,也可以是一个标有“Q1裁员计划”的u盘,放在公共场所,让受害者找到. 一旦设备被使用或恶意文件被下载, 受害者的计算机被感染,从而允许罪犯接管网络.


PC中的后门是一种绕过普通身份验证的方法, 获取远程访问PC的权限, 同时试图不被发现. The backdoor may take the form of an installed program (e.g.或者恶意软件可以修改PC上的现有软件,从而创建一个后门. Here is an overview of the threat types, categories and their 描述:


来自敏捷软件开发的术语. 也被称为“Sprint Backlog”. 这是一个待办事项的清单. 参见“敏捷”、“Burndown”和“Sprint”.


销售部门内部使用的文件, which lists the strengths and the weaknesses of a specific competitor combined with the strengths of our own product.


银行家木马, designed to steal financial information entered into browser-based online forms are the cybercriminals’ answer to the crackdown on keylogging. 除了抓取表单输入之外, 银行家木马也被设计成诱骗用户访问网站设计看起来真实. Once there, users are prompted for personal information causing identity theft.


An old-ish statistical method mainly used as a baseline to filter out spam which does not work very well. 坏人找到了很多办法绕过它.

Behavioral Detections

反病毒软件使用签名检测恶意软件, heuristics 和行为. 基于行为的方法因产品而异.

Behavioral Economics

Behavioral economics studies the effects of psychological, cognitive, emotional, cultural and social factors on the decisions of individuals and institutions. It wasn’t until 1970 that behavioral economics came of age thanks to the work of Israeli social scientists, 诺贝尔经济学奖得主, 丹尼尔·卡尼曼和阿莫斯·特沃斯基. Kahneman and Tversky found significant evidence that humans, in certain circumstances, 表现出偏离规范或理性判断的系统性模式.


由一组客户在软件的实时应用程序中执行的测试, 在一个或多个最终用户站点, 在不受开发人员控制的环境中.

Blacklist/black list

A list of known bad files, bad domains or bad email addresses you do not want mail from. 前两个被防病毒阻止,当用户试图访问他们. 错误的电子邮件地址(发件人)可以通过各种方式被阻止. 也看到白名单.


Malware often contains more than one malicious technology. 它可以具有蠕虫的特征, 但是使用病毒技术来感染其他机器, and behave like a Trojan. 恶意代码是多种技术的混合体. 根据调查,这是系统管理员最害怕的事情.


Software that takes a lot of CPU and Memory resources while running on the computer. 多年来,防病毒公司一直在添加越来越多的代码来抵御日益复杂的恶意软件. 但他们使用大量的CPU和RAM来实现这一点, and so system admins call these traditional AV vendors as creating ‘bloatware’.


A process that captures traffic addressed to a legitimate website and sends (redirects) it to a different website instead. Some malware does automatic redirection to fool users into thinking they’re interacting with a valid and legitimate site rather than a malicious one.

Boot Virus



也称为“缓冲区溢出”. Simplified, it’s a case of sloppy coding which allows an attacker to write data to a memory buffer, 超过缓冲区的边界, and overwrites the memory next to it with executable code that they can then use to hack into the system.

更专业的解释如下:在计算机安全中, 一个缓冲区溢出, or 缓冲区溢出, 进程将数据存储在程序员为其预留的内存之外的内存缓冲区中,这是一种不必要的情况吗. 这些额外的数据将覆盖相邻的内存, 这可能会导致各种错误, 包括破坏系统安全. 黑客试图用设计用来执行恶意代码的输入来触发缓冲区溢出. Here is 一个简短的视频 在Youtube上解释这一过程.




“敏捷”软件开发中使用的术语,也是KnowBe4使用的一种方法. The burndown chart is a publicly displayed chart showing remaining work in the sprint backlog. 它每天更新,提供了一个sprint进度的简单视图. 它还提供了快速的可视化参考. 参见“Scrum”和“Sprint”.

Bot, spam bot, ddos bot

被坏人拥有和控制的软件,存在于受感染的个人电脑上并自主运行. 见“僵尸网络” and ‘DDOS’.


Botnet is a jargon term for a collection of software robots, or ‘bots’, 在受感染的电脑上自动运行. 而僵尸网络通常以其恶意软件名称命名, there are typically multiple botnets in operation using the same malicious software families, 但由不同的犯罪组织操作. 僵尸网络做了很多坏事, 比如吐出垃圾邮件, 攻击其他电脑或网络服务器, 或者将机密数据发回僵尸网络命令控制系统(C&C) servers. 它们由一个“机器人牧人”管理

Bot Herder



A malicious piece of software that changes the web browser’s settings without the permission of the user. 示例:将“首页”更改为其他站点, changes the search engine default page and other activities, 一般来说,试图强迫点击率到某个网站,以提高该网站的广告收入.


蛮力攻击是一种相对简单的、自动化的访问系统的方法. The brute force software tries usernames and passwords, over and over again, until it gets in. 它不是很复杂, 但如果用户的密码是123456用户名是admin, it’s very effective. 它们是对IT安全中最薄弱环节——用户——的攻击.


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C&C server aka "C2" server

Command & 控制服务器用于运行僵尸网络. 见“僵尸网络”.


The 常见的弱点和暴露 (CVE)系统为公众提供了一种参考方法 information-security 漏洞 和曝光. 美国的 国家网络安全FFRDC,由 The Mitre Corporation美国联邦储备委员会(federal reserve,简称:联邦储备委员会)在美国的资助下维持了这一体系 国家网络安全处 美国国土安全部的.[1] 该系统于1999年9月正式向公众推出.[2] The 安全内容自动化协议 使用CVE,在Mitre的系统和美国都列出了CVE id 国家漏洞数据库.[3]  More at WIKIPEDIA


合规审核准备评估. CARA is a free tool 它可以帮助您评估您的组织在满足CMMC的遵从性需求方面的准备情况.

CEO Fraud

鱼叉式网络钓鱼 针对会计人员的攻击, 声称他们是首席执行官,并紧急转移一大笔钱. CEO frauD是 社会工程 该航班在2015年起飞. 


加州数据库安全违反法案. CA State law which requires disclosure to CA residents if their PII or PHI has been stolen or is believed to have been stolen (See PII and/or PHI). 如果超过500条记录被盗,律师们几乎会立即提起集体诉讼.


CDW是世界上最大的 高科技的经销商. 他们是DMR, 直接市场转售商,也被称为电子零售商,是一个公司直接销售给消费者在网上,没有任何形式的店面运营.


No, not the Langley guys. 信息安全术语 Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability. 它是一个用于指导组织内部信息安全策略的模型. 机密性是一组限制信息访问的规则. Integrity is the assurance that the information is relevant, accurate and trustworthy. 可用性是授权人员可以随时访问信息的保证.




Chief Security Officer


网络安全成熟度模型认证(CMMC) framework, required by the US Department of Defense (DoD),


儿童网络隐私保护法. A U.S. 这项联邦法律要求社交媒体网站和针对13岁以下儿童的网站的所有者在网站收集和使用儿童的个人信息之前获得父母的同意.


一个人利用社交媒体伪装成别人的骗局, 通常是为了进行误导性的网恋. To “catfish是“通过虚构的网络角色来引诱某人进入一段关系”.“欺骗的人是鲶鱼.


Companies often have partners that help them get to market and sell to the ultimate end user. 这些公司被称为渠道合作伙伴,或者简称为“渠道”


Data that has been encrypted and cannot be read by a human, as opposed to cleartext.


Data that has not been encrypted and can be read by a human, as opposed to cyphertext. Sending credit card data over the Internet in cleartext is an invitation to disaster. 将机密信息存储在硬盘上而不进行加密,使黑客的生活变得更加容易.


吸引眼球的链接或有争议的故事,鼓励人们继续阅读. Can also be used to get users to click on links to malware.


The name ‘cloud computing’ was inspired by the cloud symbol that is often used to represent the Internet in flow charts and diagrams. 它意味着使用Internet上的应用程序,而不是你的PC或公司服务器上的应用程序. SalesForce.Com就是一个很好的例子,但是还有很多其他的例子. The advantage is that someone else takes care of the hardware and software, (for a fee). 云计算有不同的类别, 这里有一些:软件即服务(SaaS), 效用计算, 和管理服务提供商(MSP).


一种计算模式,公司没有自己的服务器, 但在大型数据中心租用服务器空间. KnowBe4生活在亚马逊的云中.


软件发布生命周期的一个阶段,在此期间所有特性都被编码. At this point lots of testing and a Beta test is needed before the software would be ready for release. See ‘PMD’. 看到维基百科.

Code Signing Certificate

当一个软件公司发布一个软件产品时,他们应该与一个 code signing certificate that identifies the application as created by them and that the application has not been modified by anyone else. Antivirus companies use this for whitelisting of good applications by the company that signed the application, 例如戴尔, Microsoft, Apple, etc. They also use this for blacklisting all applications from certain companies like known to create unwanted software.


Cognitive biases are systematic errors in human thinking and decision making (Tversky & 卡尼曼,1974). 被社会工程利用,但也是糟糕商业决策的原因. Great 文章在这里.  佩里·卡彭特在KnowBe4上发表了一篇非常有用的博文,里面有一些有用的链接 here.


一个严重到会严重削弱你所提供的服务的漏洞, 它会毁了整个公司. 例如, 防病毒是非常强大的引擎, so it has the power to bite very hard and make a brick out of people’s workstations instantly, 数百万的. 这种情况几乎经常发生在大多数防病毒公司,他们经常躲避这样的子弹. 

Compatibility Testing

The process of determining the ability of two or more systems to exchange information. 在这种情况下,开发的软件取代了一个已经在工作的程序, an investigation should be conducted to assess possible comparability problems between the new software and other programs or systems.


服从服从愿望或命令的行为或事实. 源自“comply”—按照愿望或命令行事. 源自拉丁语" complire " -填充或履行.

A compliance report is a report to the originator of an order that the order has been done and is a completed cycle. When a compliance officer receives a “done” as a single statement without any evidence, 不合规的行为可能会侥幸逃脱. That is why every compliance report must be accompanied with evidence that shows the cycle is indeed a real done”. or at the very least an attestation from the Directly Responsible Individual that the task has been completed.

在这个背景下 KnowBe4合规经理 it means having an (IT) environment that is up to the standards of the regulations of that industry one is in. Many industries are regulated by one law or another and need to comply with that law, 例如医疗保健组织的HIPAA, 萨班斯-奥克斯利法案适用于上市公司和许多其他公司. 也适用于PCI合规,即支付卡行业数据安全标准(PCI DSS)制定的规则。. 更多的在 our website. 这是单词使用的图表 在过去的几个世纪.

Computational Propaganda

The use of algorithms, automation, 而塑造公众生活的大数据正在成为日常生活中无处不在的一部分.


处理在计算机和数字存储介质中发现的法律证据的法医学. 计算机取证也被称为数字取证. 它只是使用特殊的软件工具来搜索和保存犯罪证据. 看到维基百科.


也被称为 Downup, Downadup和城, is a computer worm targeting the Windows operating system, 2008年11月首次被发现. It uses flaws in Windows software to make PCs into zombies and link them into a botnet that can be commanded remotely by its criminal owners. Conficker at its peak had more than seven million computers under its control. 这种蠕虫病毒使用了一种先进的恶意软件技术,这使得它很难被对抗, 并迅速蔓延到现在被认为是自2003年SQL Slammer以来最大的计算机蠕虫感染. 防病毒捕获并隔离Conficker, 但世界十大电子游戏平台得控制住这个, 因为它是由非常聪明的坏人经营的.


A simplified look at a container is a set of processes that are isolated from the rest of the system. All the files necessary to run a container are provided from a distinct image. This means that containers 从开发阶段开始,它们是否具有可移植性和一致性, to testing, and finally to production, 你可以快速获得一个新的AWS实例 & running. Here is a 系统管理员指南 到容器.


它的基本形式, a short line of text that a web site puts on your computer’s hard drive when you access that web site. That way when you return, that web site knows you were there before and can automate some things for you. 但是还有Adobe公司发明的Flash cookie. 这些可以被描述为你可能从未知道过的cookie踪迹. 而且因为那些饼干是在外面保存的, by Adobe, 即使清除你的浏览器缓存也不能阻止你被跟踪. Flash cookies often share the same values as HTTP cookies. 隐私政策很少披露Flash cookie的存在, 而且用户对隐私偏好的控制也缺乏. See ‘隐私政策’.




黑客在特定网站或服务上快速测试电子邮件和密码组合. 这些通常是自动化的程序,专门针对那些在互联网上多个网站重复使用密码的人. Here is an article.


Malware intended to steal money from an individual or financial institution.


网络犯罪一词包含了广泛的潜在非法活动. In KnowBe4’s context, 世界十大电子游戏平台指的是直接针对计算机网络或设备及其用户的犯罪行为. 以下是更多可能的例子:

  • 恶意软件,包括病毒
  • 通过僵尸网络的拒绝服务攻击
  • 鱼叉式网络钓鱼 诈骗,导致身份盗窃,数据泄露和其他重大损害.

Cybercrime Attack Map

卡巴斯基有一张实时地图,可以实时显示所有正在进行的网络攻击. You can see it here.


Organized crime penetrating the network of an organization and emptying their bank accounts via the Internet. 这也是KnowBe4首席执行官斯图•苏维尔曼(Stu Sjouwerman)为企业高管们写的一本书的标题,这本书解释了网络犯罪的危险. See this.


An attacker who is motivated by some idealogy and tries to destroy computers, 网络和实体基础设施,如水厂, 能源工厂和股票市场等商业基础设施.


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一种分布式拒绝服务攻击(DDoS). 拒绝服务攻击(DoS攻击)或分布式拒绝服务攻击(DDoS攻击)是试图使计算机资源对其目标用户不可用. Done in various ways, it generally consists of the concerted efforts of a person or people to prevent an Internet site or service from functioning efficiently or at all.


数据执行预防. A security feature in the Windows OS which tries to prevent hackers from using 缓冲区溢出 attacks.


动态主机控制协议. It’s a standardized protocol that dynamically provides IP address assignment from a pool of available IP addresses from an ISP or a network router. “DHCP租期”是指IP地址租给网络用户的租期. DHCP是Internet的TCP/IP协议套件的一部分.

DKIM (DomainKeys Identified Mail)是一个重要的身份验证机制,以帮助保护电子邮件接收者和电子邮件发件人免受伪造和钓鱼电子邮件. 伪造电子邮件是对电子邮件交流各方的严重威胁. See


Data Loss Prevention. DLP是一个计算机安全术语,指的是识别, monitor, 保护公司数据. The systems are designed to detect and prevent the 未经授权的 use and transmission of 保密 information. 看到维基百科.


基于域的消息认证、报告和一致性(DMARC) is an email-validation system designed to detect and prevent email spoofing. ... DMARC 是建立在两种现有机制之上的, Sender Policy Framework (SPF)和域名密钥识别邮件(DKIM). 看到维基百科.


Direct Market Reseller, also known as an e-tailer which is a company that sells directly to consumers online without operating storefront operations of any kind.


非军事区. 一个单独的计算机主机,甚至一个小网络,作为一个组织的安全的私人网络和外部不安全的互联网之间的“中立区”. DMZ做两件事:1)防止外部用户直接访问具有机密信息的系统, and 2) provides Internet access to users in that organization.


域名系统:它是一个 分层 and 分散的 的计算机、服务或其他资源的命名系统 Internet or a private network. 简单地说,它将域名翻译成 to a number like that corresponds with a computer on the internet somewhere. 


域名劫持, 也称为静默服务器交换, 这是一个恶意的攻击载体,可以用来强制将网络流量重定向到虚假或不同于您所请求的网站. Here is a blog post that explains 域名劫持.


Deep Packet Inspection. 一种计算机网络数据包过滤的形式. DPI is performed as the packet passes an inspection point, 寻找不符合, viruses, spam, intrusions or predefined criteria to decide what actions to take on the packet, 包括收集统计信息. This is in contrast to shallow packet inspection (usually called Stateful Packet Inspection) which just checks the header portion of a packet. 看到维基百科


A data breach is the intentional or unintentional release of secure information to an untrusted environment. Other terms for this phenomenon include unintentional information disclosure, 数据泄漏和数据泄漏. 在维基百科


A channel partner (See Channel)不喜欢做大量的市场营销,然后失去他们的交易给别人. 防止这种情况的方法是通过渠道合作伙伴门户网站注册交易,渠道合作伙伴可以确保他们受到保护,并得到他们的交易. 




A video of a person in which their face or body has been digitally altered so that they appear to be someone else, typically used maliciously or to spread false information. Another way to put it is: deepfakes are synthetic media in which a person in an existing image or video is replaced with someone else's likeness. 看到维基百科.


深度防御 is a security discipline that protects all six levels of an IT infrastructure. 包括政策、程序 & 意识,周界,内部网络,主机,应用程序和数据.


一种对密码的自动攻击,它使用字典中的常见单词,并将这些单词与正在被攻击的密码进行比较. If you use a common word from a dictionary as your (very weak) password it’s an invitation to be hacked.

Digital Certificate 

A digital stamp or electronic document that verifies the identity of a person or organization. 该证书包含由信誉良好的证书颁发机构颁发的非常安全的密码, 比如VeriSign或Thawte.


清理被恶意软件感染的电脑. 消毒可自动完成抗病毒, 但有时需要世界十大电子游戏平台的安全响应团队手动完成.


旨在误导的虚假信息, 尤指由政府机构向敌对势力或媒体发布的宣传. 这些活动也被称为影响活动或操纵活动. 虚假信息 is often forwarded to friends and family and at that point it is called 错误信息. 在约瑟夫·斯大林的领导下,俄罗斯发明了虚假信息,他创建了一个特别机构,开展宣传活动,达到了新的水平,称为Dezinformatsiya.


一个IT渠道 distributor is a business that acts as an intermediary between vendors like KnowBe4,  resellers like VARS or system integrators (SIs)在软件或硬件的分配上. Here is a more detailed definition.

Disposition [PhishER]

排列方式某物被放置或安排的方式,尤指与其他事物相关的方式.  对于PhishER,世界十大电子游戏平台的意思是获取“未知”的电子邮件,并将其安排为“清洁/垃圾邮件/威胁”。.

DNS Server

域名系统(DNS)服务器映射一个人类可识别的标识符(如.g. to a computer-recognizable numeric identification (e.g.是KnowBe4的终端服务机器). 看到维基百科.

域恶搞测试 (DST)

KnowBe4提供的服务, 哪个公司会发送一封电子邮件给潜在客户,让他们从自己的域名欺骗客户. 这应该不能让他们理解. 他们的邮件服务器需要进行配置,以便删除这些来自外部的带有内部邮件地址的电子邮件. Request a 免费的DST在这里.

Doppelgänger (Domain)

Is an "evil twin" domain that looks very much like your own domain but is malicious. It uses punycode (见下文) homographs (见下文)欺骗终端用户,他们点击了一个合法的域名. bad guys are using punycode and homographs to create domains that look almost identical to the original. KnowBe4有一个免费的工具,你可以运行它,看看你的域名是否有“邪恶的双胞胎”. 它被称为Domain Doppelgä恩格尔和你可以 在这里找到


诈骗应用程序通常不是登陆个人系统的第一个不想要的程序. 下载程序,例如特洛伊木马.Zlob首先感染系统,然后下载误导的应用程序到计算机. 安装并准备好下载的应用程序之后, the malware that installed it will inform the user that they are infected with a new, 未知的威胁. This can be done through a “balloon message” that appears in the lower right-hand side of the system. The misleading application will then present itself and either pretend to download or run a scan of the system.


Something bad got installed on a user’s PC without their knowledge or consent. 它是一种将软件从网络服务器转移到毫无防备的用户计算机上的操作. It occurs in the background, with no notification, when a user visits a particular web page. 用户只需访问网页即可进行下载. Such downloads usually include malware when some kind of scam or attack is under way. 这个表达有四个越来越严格的技术含义. 看到维基百科 for those.


垃圾箱搜寻就是在垃圾桶里寻找任何有价值的信息, like data written on pieces of paper or computer printouts. 黑客经常可以找到密码、文件名或其他机密信息.


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EAC是电子邮件帐户妥协的简称,是BEC的近亲. 主要的区别在于EAC, 犯罪分子发起欺诈性电汇的目标是个人,而不是企业.




Electronic Funds Transfer


Email Exposure Check. KnowBe4 provides a free Email Exposure Check 的前景. We do a ‘deep search’ in the Internet’s search engines for all email addresses that belong to a certain domain. We are able to look into PDFs, Word and Excel files as well. IT security specialists call it the ‘phishing 攻击表面’. 购买GOLD包的客户每个月都会收到一个EEC. The EEC has been upgraded to EEC Pro spring 2018 and delivers more information.


The EICAR virus (pronounced eye-car) was developed as a sample virus that is used in the IT security industry to see if antivirus is working. 它是完全安全的,它只用于测试反病毒的基本功能.


End Of Life. 软件行业的行话,意思是一个产品将被退休,不再被支持.


ERP是企业资源计划(Enterprise Resource Planning)的缩写,指的是用来计划和管理所有核心供应链的软件和系统, 制造业, services, 组织的财务和其他过程.


最终用户许可协议. (That thing no one ever reads…) A software license agreement is a contract between the “licensor” and purchaser of the right to use computer software. The license may define ways under which the copy can be used, 除了买方的自动权利. Many EULAs are only presented to a user as a click-through where the user must “accept” and is then allowed to install the software.

Email Antivirus Scanning

Scanning enterprise email for antivirus can be done in four (!)不同的地方.

  • 在一个电子邮件托管公司,企业电子邮件是外包的
  • 在周边设有专用网关产品
  • 在Exchange或Linux邮件服务器本身, 防病毒电子邮件安全产品可以做到这一点,并扫描Exchange Store的恶意软件
  • 在工作岗位上,防病毒企业代理可以扫描传入的电子邮件中是否有恶意软件.


Another word for the workstation that is used by an end-user 在一个组织. Refers to a computer or device at the end of a network cable. 你正在阅读这篇文章的PC被系统管理员称为“端点”. 赛门铁克将其企业反病毒软件称为赛门铁克端点保护(SEP).


提高或提高…的质量或价值. When adding additional data about reported emails we are giving the admin more at a glance information about what they are looking at, thus we are enriching 的消息.


为组织内的员工制定的一项政策,旨在为上述员工提供指导和参考,帮助他们做出“为最多数人带来最大利益”的日常决策。. 亦称“道德守则”. As opposed to “Acceptable Use Policy” which is more like a Moral Code with hard “survival” rules about do’s and dont’s to keep the organization alive.


Short for ‘Microsoft Exchange Server’ which handles corporate email (and more). There are Antivirus Security Products for Exchange which protect the Exchange server against viruses and spam. MS-Exchange有五个版本,2003年,2007年,2010年,2012年和2014年.


一个利用(法国, meaning “achievement”) is (usually malicious) software that takes advantage of a bug, glitch or vulnerability in other code in order to cause unintended or unanticipated behavior to occur, 从而实现对计算机系统的控制. 见“零日”.

Exploit Kit 

An Exploit Kit (EK)是一种恶意代码,安装在一个被破坏的web服务器上,旨在发现漏洞(缺陷), 从服务器请求数据的系统(客户端)中的弱点或错误, 并利用这些漏洞进入(客户端)系统. 黑客在网络攻击的第一阶段使用, because they have the ability to download malicious files and feed the attacked system with malicious code after infiltrating it.  Example: The owner of A PC with old versions of Flash and the Firefox browser was social engineered to go to a legit but compromised website. EK发现了旧的软件版本, 查了它的已知漏洞数据库, 并利用漏洞来控制电脑并感染它 ransomware.


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419 Scam

Scams originating from Nigeria are called 419 scams as the number “419” refers to the article of the Nigerian Criminal Code dealing with fraud. 大部分的骗局都很老了, 以前用过传真和邮寄吗, 现在在互联网上使用. 这是一个完整的产业 Nigeria 围绕这些诈骗.

Fake News

Fake news is the promotion and propagation of news articles via social media. These articles are promoted in such a way that they appear to be spread by other users, 而不是付费做广告. The news stories distributed are designed to influence or manipulate users’ opinions on a certain topic towards certain objectives.


在许多信息安全领域,联邦政府落后于私营企业. 但FedRAMP是联邦政府利用其购买力在更广泛的商业市场推动更高水平的安全,并在采用更安全的使用互联网和基于互联网的服务方面发挥了带头作用. FedRAMP provides a level playing field for assessing the security of cloud services to a known standard, 包括对问题和响应的持续监控和可见性.


假阳性. In the antivirus world this means a file is flagged as malicious (and possibly quarantined) when it isn’t. 这可能会导致计算机故障. 在反垃圾邮件世界中,FP意味着合法的电子邮件被标记为垃圾邮件并被隔离.


当产品团队同意系统的功能需求得到满足,并且没有新功能被放入发布版本中时,产品构建就被称为功能完成, 但重大的软件缺陷可能仍然存在. This happens at the Beta stage in the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC).


Short: A device or software product that can block attacks by filtering data packets.

Long: A firewall is designed to block 未经授权的 access while permitting authorized communications. 无论是硬件还是软件, it is configured to permit or deny all (in and out) computer traffic based upon a 的规则集 and other criteria. 防火墙有几种类型. 看到维基百科. In KnowBe4 we use the term ‘human firewall’ to indicate all users are trained to a point where they do not fall for any 社会工程 tricks.


你用来重写EPROM的内容的过程,比如BIOS. EPROM是一种只读存储器芯片,其内容可以被擦除和重编程.


在世界十大电子游戏平台的环境中, “digital forensic science” that deals with legal evidence found in computers and digital storage media. 世界十大电子游戏平台的目标是用一种法医合理的方式来检验数字媒体,目的是为了进行识别, preserving, recovering, 分析并提供网络犯罪的证据.


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格雷姆-里奇-比利利法案(GLBA, pronounced “glibba”), 也就是1999年的金融现代化法案, is a U.S. federal law that requires banks and financial institutions to protect private information of individuals.


治理、风险和法规遵循(GRC)指的是管理组织整体治理的策略, enterprise risk management and compliance with regulations. Think of GRC 作为一种结构化的方法,使IT与业务目标保持一致, 同时有效地管理风险和满足合规要求.


游戏化 is the addition of gaming features or principles to something that typically does not have a gaming element--in our case, 保安意识培训和电子学习内容. 游戏化 has been shown to improve user engagement by increasing people’s inherent ambition to compete, achieve, or master. 研究表明,当人们被内在激励去完成一项任务时, 他们学得更好,记住的信息更多.


Manipulate (someone) by psychological means into questioning their own sanity. “在第一集中,凯伦·瓦伦丁被她丈夫气死了。”



Grey IT

Employees in the organization installing and implementing technology without going through normal channels, getting no approval, 没有IT和/或信息安全的介入.  It is not allowed as per the KnowBe4 Acceptable Use Policy.




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我被骗了吗. 运行的服务的名称 Troy Hunt在那里,你可以检查你的证书是否属于数据泄露的一部分. Some KnowBe4 tools like Password Exposure Test integrate with this site.


健康保险便携性和责任法案, was enacted by the United States Congress and signed by President Bill Clinton in 1996. It requires healthcare organizations to protect personal health information. (See PHI)


主机入侵防御系统. 入侵防御系统(IPS)是一种网络安全设备,可以监视网络和/或系统活动的恶意或不想要的行为,并可以作出反应, 在实时, 阻止或阻止那些活动. 看到维基百科


人体检测与反应. 将KnowBe4领先的十大电子游戏平台和模拟钓鱼测试平台与实时行为分析和微学习结果相结合,创建了一个新的网络安全类别,称为“人类检测和响应(HDR)”。. 见新闻稿


原来的意思是:拥有高级计算机技能的人,热情且熟练. If they attack computers it is not done with malicious intent. Recently though the definition has changed and means anyone who illegally breaks into or tries to break into networks and/or computers.


About 90% of email that goes through the internet is spam. 在反垃圾邮件业务中,另外10%(好的)被称为“火腿”. (no joke)


Heuristic一词来源于希腊语,意为“发现”或“发现”. 它们是基于经验的技术,有助于解决问题. 启发式是“经验法则”,或有根据的猜测. Antivirus uses heuristics in the form of dynamic pattern assessment to determine if a code sample is malware.

Heuristic Detections

反病毒软件使用签名检测恶意软件, heuristics 和行为.


A term used to describe when two or more characters have shapes that are similar or identical. 一个简单的例子是数字0和大写字母“o”,很容易把o和0混淆.


These are like honeypots, 但不是完全休眠, 它们可以模拟用户的冲浪行为,并通过这种方式捕获恶意软件.


A file on a PC or server that sits equipped with a beacon, 等着被偷,然后打电话告诉主人车在哪里,是谁偷的.


一台PC, unprotected, 在Internet上等待通过FTP和HTTP威胁载体被感染.


A 社会工程 让男人在网上与虚构的有吸引力的女性互动的把戏. 以前的间谍战术,用的是真正的女性.




随着世界十大电子游戏平台的信息系统受到猛烈攻击,世界十大电子游戏平台不能忽视 any 纵深防御模型层. The human element of cyber security is too often overlooked. 劳动力网络防范迫在眉睫. 十大电子游戏平台 通过培训用户如何防止恶意活动,以及在此类活动发生时如何应对,是否能够获得回报. 它帮助人们将自己的身份视为维护组织安全的重要组成部分,并让他们意识到自己所做的事情很重要.


间谍软件,改变默认主页有人, 到一个显示广告的网站, 不同的搜索引擎, or worse, porn. They are very hard to get rid of for the average consumer.


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联邦调查局网络犯罪投诉中心. 他们在这里.


Initial Access Brokers. iab是一种威胁行为者,他们出售对恶意服务的访问权,并在“勒索软件即服务”经济中扮演着关键角色. IABs通过出售对被破坏组织中的计算机的远程访问,并将机会主义活动与有针对性的攻击联系起来,为网络入侵提供了便利, 经常ransomware运营商. IABs don’t undertake ransomware attacks but sell access to a compromised network that is then used by ransomware gangs and others. More here.


ICSA实验室为安全产品和解决方案提供独立于供应商的测试和认证. 他们在这里.


Internationalized Domain Name - A domain name that contains at least one language-specific set of characters. 一个“普通”域名,例如,只使用拉丁字母(那些美国人认为是正常的abc字母). 这样一个域 Knö (参见“o”?)是国际化域名的一个例子.


入侵检测系统. 入侵检测系统(IDS)是一种网络安全设备(或软件),它监视网络和/或系统活动的恶意或不想要的行为. 也看到“臀部”


Indicators of compromise (oOCs) are “pieces of forensic data, 例如在系统日志条目或文件中找到的数据, 用于识别系统或网络上潜在的恶意活动.“危害指标有助于信息安全和IT专业人员发现数据泄露, 恶意软件感染, 或其他威胁.




In The Wild. ItW是恶意软件的名字,它被认为是在野外存在的. 反对“Wildlist”,这是官方的当前实际列表. 这个清单每个月都可能改变. Something that is on the Wildlist is ALWAYS ItW but something that is ItW listed doesn’t necessarily have to be in the actual Wildlist.


拿走别人的社会保险号, 地址和其他重要的个人信息,以建立虚假证书和实施欺诈. 伪造信用卡账户就是一个很好的例子, 累积费用,然后被拖欠, leaving the identity theft victim with the credit card debt and a ruined credit rating.

Incident Response (IR)

当系统的安全性受到损害时, 快速的事件响应是必要的. 安全团队的责任是快速有效地对问题作出反应. An example would be a security team’s actions against a hacker who has penetrated a firewall and is currently sniffing internal network traffic. 这一事件是对安全的破坏. 响应取决于安全团队的反应, 他们做了什么来减少损失, 当他们恢复资源时, 这一切都是为了保证数据的完整性. (见取证).

Information Security

信息安全是对信息和信息系统的保护 未经授权的 查阅、使用、披露、破坏、修改、细读、检查、记录或销毁.


通过吞咽或吸收进入体内. In the case of PhishER, email messages are ingested—taken into— into the system and arrive in the PhishER console for processing. 


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从前有一台电脑. Then someone built a second one and wanted some code off the first computer. That meant we needed a way to move information without dependencies on the underlying hardware. Since then, 有许多字符编码和交换标准(ASCII, EBCIDIC, SGML, XML, etc.),他们的时间在聚光灯下. For the past few years, JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) has been the most popular. More.



Java Applet

A separate program that you see inside a browser adding special functionality to a website (HTML page).


一种专门为HTML页面添加特性而创建的编程语言. Note that JavaScript is different from Java.


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During the mid-nineties, 凯文·米特尼克 是“世界头号通缉犯”, 他现在是一名非常成功的财富500强安全顾问:基于他30多年的黑客和 社会工程, KnowBe4创建了十大电子游戏平台. 凯文是KnowBe4的股东之一. 


The foundation of the Operating System is called the Kernel. It provides basic, low-level services like hardware-software interaction and memory management. 如果一个产品在内核级工作,这有很多优点.


A form of malware or device that observes what someone types on their keyboard and sends this data back to the bad guys. 有几种方法可以做到这一点,使用软件或硬件.


凯文·米特尼克十大电子游戏平台= KMSAT (with year indication)

KnowBe4合规经理= KCM GRC平台 

Here is an overview 的培训模块

Kill Chain

杀死链, 军事术语, is defined as: “The sequence of events that must succeed to destroy a target.“积极防御整个网络杀伤链,可能会使公司更早地检测到攻击,并可能在真正的损害发生之前破坏或阻断攻击. 至少, 它将迫使公司更仔细地审视自己的网络,并了解如何根据黑客的方法在各个方面进行识别和防御.


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LAMP是一个软件包, 组装成一个由Linux组成的开源网络平台, Apache, MySQL和PHP Perl / Python /.


Lightweight Directory Access Protocol is an open, vendor-neutral, industry standard protocol 访问和维护诸如Active directory之类的目录信息服务. 如果您想让自己的软件与活动目录通信, 使用所谓的“轻量级目录访问协议”(看到维基百科).


学习管理系统(LMS)是一种管理软件, 文档, tracking, reporting and delivery of e-learning 教育课程或培训计划. Organizations can have their own LMS in-house or use a cloud-based LMS like Knowbe4 provides.


Diana Kelley, Microsoft's Cybersecurity Field CTO reached in a discussion with Tech Republic. “网络钓鱼是一个古老的威胁,但它仍然是一个主要的威胁. Kelley points out that it's evolved to become better crafted and more tightly targeted. 她甚至不再叫它“鱼叉钓鱼”了. 她认为,“激光钓鱼”可能更具描述性和唤起性.

Lifetime Subscription

Q4 2009, 作为有史以来第一家防病毒公司, Sunbelt Software began to offer VIPRE Antivirus as a “PC Lifetime Subscription” via the Home Shopping Network. 售价99美元.95, Sunbelt calculated the average lifetime of a PC to be four to five years. 其他自动驾驶汽车公司在随后的几年中开始了这种类型的订阅.


一种非常流行的开源Unix操作系统变体. It comes in many flavors. 

Logic Bomb

A malicious computer program (or part of a program) that is asleep until it gets woken up by a specific logical event. 例如,中国军方黑客在美国的一个网站上隐藏了一些代码.S. 能在特定时间使电站瘫痪的发电厂. An example of this is a 卧铺ransomware 感染了工作站但只在特定时间苏醒的菌株. 


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多因素认证安全评估. KnowBe4新推出的多因素认证安全评估(MASA)是一个免费的IT安全工具,可帮助您评估组织的MFA安全准备情况,并识别您的特定风险,以便您可以更好地防范MFA黑客.


主引导记录. Specifically designated area on a hard disk drive where the instructions sit for the PC to start up and describes how the drive is set up.


1) An element or "unit of culture" of transmission that may be considered to be passed from one individual to another. 
2)幽默的图片、视频、文字等., that is copied (often with slight variations) and spread rapidly by Internet users. F
源自希腊语mimēma '被模仿的东西',关于基因的模式 .


MSP (管理服务 Provider)是通过Web为其他公司管理信息技术服务的公司. 


托管保安服务提供者(MSSP)是一家资讯科技服务供应商,为组织提供商定的网络安全监察和管理水平, 其中可能包括病毒和垃圾邮件拦截, intrusion detection, 防火墙和VPN (virtual private network)管理.


平均故障间隔时间. Short for mean time between failures, the average time a device will function before failing. MTBF ratings are measured in hours and indicate the sturdiness of hard disk drives and printers. Typical disk drives for personal computers have MTBF ratings of about 500,000 hours. This means that of all the drives tested, one failure occurred every 500,000 hours of testing. 看到Webopedia more.


Think of it simply as a branch of statistics, designed for a world of big data. The most common application of machine learning tools is to make predictionsHere are a few examples of prediction problems in a business. Good 文章在这里.

  • 为客户提供个性化的建议
  • 预测长期客户忠诚度
  • 预测员工未来的表现
  • 对贷款申请人的信用风险进行评级


A list of (usually text-based) commands and/or instructions that are grouped together and can be run as a single command.

Macro Virus



Malware is a shorter version of the term “Malicious Software”. 它是一个总称术语,用来指各种各样的病毒, worms, Trojans and other programs that a hacker can use to damage, steal from, 或者控制端点和服务器. 大多数恶意软件是在感染者没有意识到的情况下安装的.

Maintenance aka Renewal

The period that a customer gets tech support, updates and new software versions.


正如大家所知道的那样 is malicious advertising that contains active scripts designed to download malware or force unwanted content onto your computer. Exploits in Adobe PDF and Flash are the most common methods used in malvertisements. 见“利用”.


A Service Provider (MSP) that maintains all the computers and networks for a company, often via the Internet. See Cloud Computing.

Man-in-the-middle attack

An attack in which data sent and received between two parties in an ongoing connection is intercepted. 攻击者可以记录、读取甚至修改该通信的内容.

Media Drop

Technique used by hackers who load malware on a USB drive, CD/DVD, 或其他可读形式的媒体, 然后把被感染的介质留在容易被发现的地方. In some cases, thieves actually give the media away at public venues or trade shows. 一旦受害者装入驱动器或磁盘, the malware does its work and will allow the hacker to do a number of things, 包括远程控制受害者的电脑.


相对抽象的关于其他数据的数据. 例如:记录什么手机号码在什么时间呼叫什么其他号码. 有许多不同类型的元数据.


典型的多态恶意软件只会重写部分计算机代码来逃避检测. 变质恶意软件走得更远 在每次感染期间完全重新编译它的代码 当它第一次连接到互联网.


Middleware is software that exists between an operating system or database and the applications running on it, 特别是在网络或分布式环境中. 它可以作为一个隐藏的转换层,实现操作系统和应用程序之间的数据管理和通信.


Malcious software (aka warware) created by the military and/or intelligence agency to cause damage to an adversary’s infrastructure. Milware is stealthy to the extreme and often does not get detected for years. Normal antivirus products seem to not find this type of code. Stuxnet就是一个很好的例子.


虚假或不准确的信息,尤指有意欺骗的信息. 经常转发给朋友和家人,不知道它是假的.  看到造谣.

Money Mules

A person recruited by a criminal or criminal organization to quickly receive and turn around funds involved in scams. 这些骗局通常与ACH、信用卡或类似的在线交易有关. 钱骡通常没有意识到他或她的实际角色.


A method of validating the identity of a user by using two or more security mechanisms. For example, a valid user name and password combination along with a fingerprint scan is a form of 多因素身份验证. 现代网络犯罪已经发展出恶意软件来逃避某些形式的 多因素身份验证.


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Never A Dull Moment. 世界十大电子游戏平台所处行业的座右铭. 


网络地址转换. A security technology that hides all IP addresses in a network so attackers cannot get to specific machines.


Network Attached Storage. A network hardware technology that uses a strand-alone storage device that is dedicated to centralized disk storage.


Network Access Control. 一种控制网络访问的技术. 看到维基百科


Network Access Protection is a Microsoft technology for controlling network access of a computer host based on the system health of that computer. 使用NAP,系统管理员可以为系统健康需求定义策略. I.e. 是否安装了最新的操作系统更新? 防病毒软件的定义是否更新? 那台计算机安装并启用防火墙了吗? 你懂的. Computers not in compliance with system health requirements have restricted or no access to the network.




国家白领犯罪中心. 他们在这里


Software being used to scan a network from the outside in to search for 漏洞. KnowBe4使用 Nessus for the 漏洞扫描 世界十大电子游戏平台提供服务.


网络入侵防御系统. 入侵防御系统(IPS)是一种网络安全设备,可以监视网络和/或系统活动的恶意或不想要的行为,并可以作出反应, 在实时, 阻止或阻止那些活动. 看到维基百科


美国国家标准与技术学会(NIST)有一个很好的出版物,里面有模板和指南,告诉你应该进入 十大电子游戏平台 program. The 70-page document is available for free in PDF format from the institute’s Web site.


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原始设备制造商. An OEM manufactures products or components which are purchased by another company and retailed under the purchasing company’s brand name. OEM是指最初生产该产品的公司. 看到维基百科.


Malware scans that are monitoring the system 在实时 for any changes and will prevent immediate infection.


Malware scans that are set to run on a scheduled basis, like 3am every night.


与活动目录相关的一个词是“OU”或“组织单位”,因为世界十大电子游戏平台允许用户通过安全组和OU指定他们想要同步的内容. 下面是一个很好的定义: An organizational unit (OU) is a subdivision within an 活动目录 into which you can place users, groups, computers, 和其他组织单位. 您可以创建组织单元来镜像组织的功能或业务结构. 请参阅活动目录“AD”.


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P/E Ratio

的市盈率, 或市盈率, helps you compare the price of a company’s stock to the earnings the company generates. 市盈率是用股票价格除以股票收益得出的. Think of it this way: The market price of a stock tells you how much people are willing to pay to own the shares, 但市盈率可以告诉你股价是否准确反映了该公司的盈利潜力, or it’s value over time. 如果一家公司的股票交易价格是每股100美元, for example, 公司的年收益为每股4美元, the P/E ratio of the company’s stock would be 25 (100 / 4). To put it another way, 考虑到公司当前的收益, 需要25年的累积收益才能等于投资的成本. More here.


点对点软件允许终端用户上传和下载软件(电影, music, 游戏)通过分布式计算架构, 不使用集中式服务器. There is a significant risk as child porn is also moving through these networks, 如果邻居非法盗用你的Wi-Fi,可能会导致特警队破门而入. (no joke).


Payment Card Industry


Organization that publishes standards (rules) on how to securely handle credit card processing.


The PCI Data Security Standard – a document published by the Payment Card Industry; it lists all the requirements for securely handling credit cards and credit card information. 接受信用卡的组织需要符合PCI标准. 这包括 十大电子游戏平台 还有很多其他的要求.


受保护的健康信息. PHI is all recorded information about an identifiable individual that relates to that person’s health, health care history, 向个人提供保健, 或者是医疗保健费用. The U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) governs the protection of Private Health Information


个人身份信息. PII is defined as any instance of an individual’s first name or first initial, plus the last name, 任何超过三十件的机密物品. 如果它可以用来唯一地标识使用非公共信息的特定个人, 它是PII,必须被保护.


产品经理. 产品经理研究, selects, develops, 并放置公司的产品, 执行产品管理活动.


差不多完成了. 这是世界十大电子游戏平台老同事最喜欢的表达方式之一, and indicated that the final product might still be months away from completion. :-)


Period of Performance. 客户为他们的产品支付了多久的维护费用.


产品服务交付. The team, 财务部的一部分, that processes orders and does Roll-Out calls for KnowBe4 Products with the customers. PSD also refers to the in-house process that routes orders from quote acceptance through the delivery process.


Phishing Security Test. This is a simulated phishing KnowBe4对潜在客户或客户上传到世界十大电子游戏平台网站的电子邮件地址进行的攻击. We have dozens of templates that existing customers can use on their employees. 你可以做一个 一次性免费PST to all your employees


A software (security) update intended to repair a vulnerability that was discovered after the product was released for general use.


补丁星期二是每个月的第二个星期二, 微软发布安全补丁的那一天. That week, system administrators need to do the testing of these patches in their own environments and then deploy the patches which usually requires a reboot. Sometimes systems are mission critical and cannot be rebooted, 是什么导致他们一直很脆弱,然后被零日威胁感染.


恶意软件通常来自不同的部分. 这就是“混合恶意软件”一词的起源. An example is an email claiming to be from the ‘Better Business Bureau’ having a complaint for you about your company. 附件为PDF格式. PDF文件是有效载荷,里面有恶意软件, 或者从某处被入侵的服务器下载恶意软件. 下面是关于and这个词的一些历史 where it came from.


See P2P

Performance Testing


Perimeter (security)

周边安全指的是路由器, firewalls, and intrusion detection systems implemented to tightly control access to networks from outside sources. More Here

Phish-prone Percentage

A term coined by KnowBe4 that indicates the percentage of employees that are prone to click on dangerous phishing links. 您可以通过它了解组织中容易出现phish的百分比 free test


一款用于管理潜在恶意电子邮件的KnowBe4产品 reported by users. 关键特性包括:优先级, disposition, automated workflows, automated responses, SIEM集成, 数据浓缩.


Phishing 是坏人试图欺骗你提供敏感信息或采取潜在危险行动的过程吗, like clicking on a link or downloading an infected attachment. They do this using emails disguised as contacts or organizations you trust so that you react without thinking first. 这是一种犯罪欺诈 社会工程. Also see 鱼叉式网络钓鱼.

Phishing Attack Surface

Are you aware that many of the email addresses of your organization are exposed on the Internet and easy to find for cybercriminals? 有了这些地址,他们就可以启动了 鱼叉式网络钓鱼 对组织的攻击. 这种攻击是很难防御的, 除非你的用户接受了下一代十大电子游戏平台. IT安全专家称其为“网络钓鱼攻击面”. 暴露的电子邮件地址越多, 你的攻击足迹就越大, and the higher the risk. 你的地址在网上的数量常常会让人吃惊, whose, 以及他们被发现的地方. Here is a datasheet 有更多的信息.


生成强密码的方法. 一种技巧是对句子进行创造性转换,这样, for example, “我从不吃黑麦面包”变成了iN3V3RtaeWRYdearb


直接侵入电信系统的一种欺诈形式, one of the things 凯文·米特尼克 used to do in the early days. 


也被称为 cleartext and is used as input for encryption.


最终用户如果在网络钓鱼测试中上当,点击了链接或打开了附件,就会在现场接受短暂的补救培训,以确保他们了解风险,并停止这样做. Relying on just 这种策略并不足以真正有效 十大电子游戏平台.


A minor software release that increments with a decimal point. I.e. from V3.0 to V3.1


A feature of a programming language that allows routines to use variables of different types at different times.  下面是这个词的来源:

  • Poly = many: polygon = multi -sided, polystyrene = many- styrene (a), polyglot =多种语言,等等.
  • Morph = change or form: morphology = study of biological form, 莫斐斯(希腊神话中的梦境之神)可以变成任何形式.

Polymorphic threat

Malware, spam or phishing attacks that change themselves very frequently to try to prevent detection by filters.


Malware that shape-shifts to avoid detection by encrypting parts of its own content differently all the time.


A 的规则集 that specify what requirements must be met.




小的网页浏览器窗口,字面上弹出的浏览器窗口,你正在看. Our training uses this technology to present the user with their training session so they need to turn popup blockers off for our website.


Forrester为像KnowBe4这样的客户创建了TEI(总经济影响)报告. Within that report they use the term "现值 (PV)". 所以,世界十大电子游戏平台只是想为每个人提供一个清晰的定义. 从Investopedia: "现值是一个概念 今天的钱比未来的钱更值钱. 换句话说,未来收到的钱不如今天收到的同等数量的钱值钱. 今天收到的1000美元在五年后的价值会超过1000美元. Why? 投资者可以投资这1美元,现在是5万美元,未来5年可能会获得回报率. Present value takes into account any interest rate an investment might earn."  


为说服目标受害者提供信息或采取行动而虚构场景的行为. Pretexting也可以用来在某些工作和角色中模仿别人, 比如技术支持或执法, to obtain information. It usually takes some back-and-forth dialogue either through email, text or the phone. It is focused on acquiring information directly from the actions taken by the targets, 通常在人力资源或财务部门工作的人. 


为用户提供完成任务所需的最少访问权限. 也被称为职责分离.

Prioritize [PhishER]

Determine the order of dealing with a series of items according to their relative importance. Different organizations have a different idea of priority; some might think digging into threats is priority #1, others might feel that responding to end users letting know that PO they reported is *not* a threat is more important. In either case it's important to get rid of the junk that doesn't matter so the important items are addressable.


A privacy policy is a legal document that discloses some or all of the ways a party gathers, uses, 公开和管理客户数据. 有很多关于这个的背景资料 Wikipedia


Information, 尤指具有偏见或误导性质的, 宣传,宣传用来促进或宣传某一特定的政治事业或观点. 有趣的是,虽然它现在有负面的含义,但它表面上有高贵的起源. In 1622 in an effort to spread Christianity around the world, 教皇格里高利十五世在罗马建立了传播信仰的圣会, 被托付给一群精心挑选的红衣主教. 这只是一个单词的意义如何随着时间的推移而发生巨大变化的例子.


可编程只读存储器. 一种计算机芯片,其内容可以从外部重写.


In short, a set of standards to get a specific function done. 例如:TCP / IP.


代理服务器是一种服务器(一个计算机系统或一个应用程序),它作为一个中介来处理客户从其他服务器寻求资源的请求. Mostly used in the context of using a proxy server to connect to the Internet. 看到维基百科.


SHORT: The name of the technology used when a domain name uses language-specific characters. A significant portion of computing systems only expect to see and use Latin characters. 当你开始引入花哨的字母时,必须有一种方式告诉系统“准备好了”, 这些信会很花哨". Punycode就是这样做的.

长:全球 域名系统 (DNS), is responsible for turning human-friendly server names into computer-friendly network numbers, but it's restricted to the limited subset of ASCII characters in domain names.  这个名字很奇怪的系统被称为 punycode is a way of converting words that can’t be written in ASCII, such as the Ancient Greek phrase ΓΝΩΘΙΣΕΑΥΤΟΝ (了解你自己),转换成ASCII编码,像这样: xn--mxadglfwep7amk6b.  

Some letters in the Roman alphabet are the same shape (if not always the same sound) as letters in the Greek, 西里尔字母和其他字母, such as the letters I, E, A, Y, T, 上面例子中的O和N. So you may be able to register a punycode domain name that looks nothing like a well-known ASCII company name, 但还是很像. For example, consider the text string consisting of these lower-case Greek letters: alpha, rho, rho, iota, epsilon. In punycode you get xn - mxail5aa,但当显示时(取决于你安装的字体),你会得到: αρριϵ.  And that is a trick the bad guys can use to create a domain name that looks like the real thing but isn't.


在黑客术语, “pwn”的意思是妥协或控制, 特别是另一台计算机(服务器或PC), web site, 网关设备, 或应用程序. 它是“黑客”或“破解”定义之一的同义词. Pwnie奖是由一组安全研究人员颁发的.


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质量保证. In KnowBe4 the team that is responsible to find bugs in our code and work with Development to deliver world-class quality to our customers.


季度商业评论. 公司管理层决定战略的会议.


The operational techniques and procedures used to achieve quality requirements. 这通常是在开发过程中处理的.


Antivirus, after it detects malware, can move that malware to a protected space on disk where it cannot do any further harm, 如果是假阳性,它可以被删除或恢复. See ‘假阳性’.


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RCA Root Cause Analysis.  不停地问“为什么”,直到把问题弄明白. 有了正确的答案,也就是最后的“为什么”,你就可以解决这个问题了.

RDP远程桌面协议 (RDP) is a proprietary protocol 开发的 Microsoft,为用户提供 graphical interface 通过网络连接连接到另一台计算机. 用户为此使用RDP客户端软件, 而另一台计算机必须运行RDP服务器软件.


RBL代表实时黑洞列表. RBLs are used for Antivirus Exchange and Antivirus Gateway. 这是一个被阻止的域名列表,因为他们是一个垃圾邮件的来源. 你可以找到RBL的完整定义 在Webopedia.


返回材料授权. 例如:“没有有效的RMA号码的货物将不被接受."


现在真正的很快的. 一个技术术语,软件开发人员用来表示他们希望何时交付可交付的代码. Also see PMD:-)


发布到生产. 最终代码被送到工厂复制的那一天. In KnowBe4’s case, the day that we released the final product on our website.

RAP Testing

病毒公报 is the world’s most prestigious antivirus lab. 除了他们的VB100认证,他们还有另一个有趣的测试叫做RAP. 是关于"被动和主动"的, 并帮助您对安全软件产品的启发式和通用主动检测能力形成印象,特别是当供应商将产品提交给病毒公告进行测试后,产品对恶意软件的性能如何. They 创建一个象限 a few times a year, and compare all products they have tested. 反病毒行业不推广这个网站,因为 it’s not a pretty picture.

RAP系统测量简单的静态检测率, 针对VB实验室团队首次看到的常见恶意软件样本进行测试 十天内 测试的每一个阶段.

The "Reactive" measure is the average of three test runs against samples seen in the ten days before the test date, allowing the products to use the latest updates and with full access to any cloud-based resources and reputation systems. For the "Proactive" measure, 产品和更新被冻结, 然后产品离线运行, 无法访问云系统, 与冷冻后十天内的样本进行对比.

RAP测试的目的是显示产品开发人员使用他们的标准文件检测方法(包括启发式规则),能够在多大程度上跟上新恶意软件的涌入。, and should also give some idea as to how much different products rely on cloud-based systems to supplement client-side technologies.


A password attack that uses a really large set of of hashes that were generated from almost every possible password.


RanSim代表“勒索软件模拟器”. KnowBe4在2016年10月发布了一个免费工具,人们可以下载该工具来检查他们的杀毒/终结点保护是否对勒索软件感染有效. It takes several scenarios and emulates the things that real ransomware would do in a non-destructive way. 你可以找到 RanSim here.


Ransomware 在支付赎金前拒绝访问设备或文件. Also called Cryptoware. 个人电脑的勒索软件是一种恶意软件,它通过社会工程攻击被安装在用户的工作站上,用户在点击链接时被骗, opening an attachment, 或者点击广告.

一旦恶意软件进入机器, it starts to encrypt all data files it can find on the PC itself and on any network shares the PC has access to. Next, 当用户想要访问其中一个文件时,系统管理员会在目录中找到两个文件,表明这些文件被索取赎金, 以及如何支付赎金解密文件. There are a number of 免费ransomware decryptor available, 然而,这是一场与黑客的持续战斗,然后升级菌株,以绕过解密方法. There are many strains of ransomware, two infamous ones are CryptoLocker and CryptoWall. Many more exist and new ransomware菌株 are released regularly.

Real Time Protection

在发生时保护电脑,而不是每24小时进行一次计划扫描. 请参阅访问保护时的“主动保护”.’






系统管理员经常管理几个地理上分散的站点. 在这些情况下, 他们需要能够管理远程站点的软件,就像他们实际存在一样. 为此,他们使用所谓的“远程控制台”. 例如, a remote console allows them to manage a machine or a whole network when they are in New York and the physical network being managed is in Atlanta.


删除PC上的恶意软件. 见“消毒”.


在KnowBe4的上下文中, reporting means the section of the cloud back-end where customers can see which employees have started their training, 已经完成了,或者还没开始. 还发送了哪些网络钓鱼安全测试, who opened, 谁点击了,还有其他相关的数据.



Reverse Engineering

To disassemble and examine some code in detail to discover how and what the creator, 所以它可以被复制或杀死.

Rogue, also Rogue Scanner, rogue anti-spyware, rogue anti-malware or scareware

Rogue security software is a form of computer malware that deceives or misleads users into paying for the fake or simulated removal of malware. Rogue security software, 近年来, 已经成为桌面计算日益严重的安全威胁. It is a very popular 社会工程 有很多这样的项目.


A rootkit is software that consists of one or more programs designed to obscure the fact that a PC or Server has been compromised. 看到维基百科


路由器是用来连接两台或多台计算机(或其他设备)的硬件, 通常是上网, 通过电线,有时是无线电信号.

Ruby on Rails

通常缩写为Rails或RoR, is an open source web application framework for the Ruby programming language. It is intended to be used with an Agile development methodology that is used by KnowBe4 for rapid development.


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短的 Security Awareness C该公司于2017年被KnowBe4收购. 


安全断言标记语言(SAML)是一种开放标准,它允许身份提供者(IdP)将授权凭证传递给服务提供者(SP). What that jargon means is that you can use one set of credentials to log into many different websites. It’s much simpler to manage one login per user than it is to manage separate logins to email, 客户关系管理软件, 活动目录, etc. More.


“自我评估问卷”. A form that merchants which accept credit cards complete to evaluate their compliance with PCI SCC rules. There are different SAQs, 这取决于商家处理交易的方式和交易量.


十大电子游戏平台. 要意识到,你需要能够面对(面对事情本来的样子). KnowBe4帮助员工面对坏人试图欺骗他们的事实. Once they confront that, they become aware and able to detect these scam emails and can take appropriate action like deleting the email or not clicking a link. 在维基百科 [ISAT]


它们是DMR Direct Market Reseller also known as an e-tailer which is a company that sells directly to consumers online without operating storefront operations of any kind.

SIM  card

A 用户识别模块 或者一个 subscriber-identification-module 哪种小卡可以装在你的智能手机里,并能确保钥匙和主人的身份. 


Security I信息和 Event Management. 一种从多个来源收集数据(通常是事件日志文件)并对其进行分析的软件, 然后可以采取一些行动,比如提醒某人或做一份漂亮的报告. 一些常见的SIEM平台包括Splunk、QRadar和LogRythm. (See XDR)

SPF(发送方策略框架) 通过提供一种机制,允许接收邮件交换器检查来自某个域的传入邮件是否来自该域的管理员授权的主机,设计用来检测电子邮件欺骗的简单电子邮件验证系统. See Wikipedia


(Service Set IDentifier) The name assigned to a Wi-Fi (wireless) network. All devices in the network must use this case-sensitive name to communicate over Wi-Fi, 哪个是一个长度为32字节的文本字符串. 开箱即用, 无线路由器和接入点有一个默认的SSID, 哪一个可能是制造商的名字, 例如“linksys”或“netgear”或简单的“default”." 


单点登录(SSO)是一种 会话和用户认证服务 例如,允许用户使用一组登录凭证, 名称和密码——用于访问多个应用程序. SSO可以被企业使用, 更小的组织和个人,方便各种用户名和密码的管理.  SSO uses SAML 它的魔法.



可共享内容对象参考模型(SCORM)是美国国防部为基于网络的电子学习创建的标准和规范的集合. It defines communications between client side content and a host system which is an LMS. (参见LMS) KnowBe4的课件是符合SCORM的.


Software Development Kit. 一组允许软件工程师创建应用程序的开发工具. 防病毒SDK允许用户创建自己的防病毒软件产品, 并支付开发者使用SDK的费用.


网页没有记忆. 从一个页面到另一个页面的用户将被网站视为一个全新的访客. Session cookies enable the website you are visiting to keep track of your movement from page to page so you don't get asked for the same information 你已经给了这个网站. Cookies allow you to proceed through many pages of a site quickly and easily without having to authenticate or reprocess each new area you visit. 所有关于饼干


当许多投资者买进时,就会出现空头挤仓 短的股票, or bet that its price will go down, and the stock's price shoots up instead.


Stock Keeping Unit. 用于指定单独产品的数字.


Service Level Agreement. 服务水平协议(SLA)是一个 服务提供者和客户之间的承诺. 服务的特定方面——质量, 可用性, 责任——服务提供者和服务用户之间达成一致. 内部sla 用于在内部维护服务水平, with an organization, 而不是与外部政党合作. 内部sla可以应用于帮助台服务, 网络或应用程序可用性和性能, 以及其他内部流程. 


中小型企业(通常有500个席位). Also called SMB (Small and Medium Business) Some industry analysts go up to 1,在他们称之为“大型企业”之前.


Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard for e-mail transmission, 并且是目前使用的首要协议. 电子邮件服务器和其他电子邮件传输代理使用SMTP发送电子邮件.


Security 编制, 定义了自动化和响应:跨连接的安全应用程序和流程的自动化安全任务协调.  (See XDR)


安全运营中心(计算), 在一个组织, a centralized unit that deals with computer security issues


SOC 2  (SOC stands for (Service Organization Controls) 审计程序是否能够确保服务提供商安全地管理您的数据,以保护组织的利益及其客户的隐私. 安全企业, 在考虑SaaS提供商时,符合SOC 2是最低要求


工作说明书. 需要完成的工作的描述, 并在开工前经双方协商一致. 


In the computer security world, a ‘Sandbox’ means a safe space where malware can be analyzed. 可以将其称为虚拟容器,不受信任的程序可以在其中安全地运行. 有时,这是一台独立的计算机,与生产网络隔离, 有时这是软件在计算机内部创造一个安全空间. The Sandbox keeps the malware away from all other resources (like private data).


诈骗软件,通常只有有限的利益或没有利益,通过不道德的营销方式出售给消费者. 销售策略的目的是引起震动, anxiety, 或者对威胁的感知, 通常是针对不知情的用户. Some forms of spyware and adware also use scareware tactics. Read more about this 在维基百科


A relatively unskilled hacker who downloads and uses “point-and-click” attack software.


一种用于管理软件开发项目的方法, 它也可以用来运行软件维护团队, 或者作为一般的项目/计划管理方法. KnowBe4使用 this method. 看到维基百科


A written document that states how an organization plans to protect its physical assets and information.


An attack method that captures the attributes of a website session from one of the parties involved (usually on the client or user end). 然后它接管(劫持)合法用户的会话. 攻击者使会话继续并模拟用户.

Security Vulnerability

The term vulnerability means a weakness which allows an attacker to penetrate a network. 它也被称为"攻击面". 漏洞有三个要素:

  • a flaw in the network
  • 攻击者访问漏洞
  • 攻击者利用该漏洞的能力

A vulnerability with a known, working, implemented attack is called an exploit. Attackers have a limited window of exploiting the vulnerability: until their access was removed, 或者部署了安全修复程序.

Sensitive Information

有特权的或专有的信息, 如果因更改而受损, corruption, loss, misuse, 或未经授权的披露, 会对拥有它的组织造成严重的伤害吗. NOTE: For our purposes, the words sensitive, 保密, 私有本质上是一样的


在社交网站上用假身份联系一个年轻女孩, 获得她的信任, 提取一些高度私人的信息, and then threaten to expose her intimate exchanges if she doesn’t assent to escalating demands for sexually explicit pictures or videos. Example at the FBI website




肩膀上冲浪 is a visual technique of gathering passwords by watching over a person’s shoulder while they log in to the system. 有一些培训, 黑客可以观察用户登录,然后使用该密码访问系统.


反病毒软件使用签名、启发式和行为检测恶意软件. 基于签名的方法建立在专有威胁信息的基础上, 使用多个源更新威胁定义.


Phishing conducted via Short Message Service (SMS), a telephone-based text messaging service. A smishing text, for example, attempts to entice a victim into revealing personal information.


包分析软件的术语,用于查看(嗅探)网络中的数据包,并显示数据包中的内容. 可以用来排除网络故障,但也可以黑进网络.


社会工程 is the act of manipulating people into performing actions or divulging 保密 information. 而类似于骗局或简单的欺诈, the term typically applies to trickery or deception for the purpose of information gathering, fraud, or computer system access; in most cases the attacker never comes face-to-face with the victim.


不请自来的,不必要的邮件. About 90% of email that goes through the internet is spam. 剩下的10%叫做"火腿". (no joke)


鱼叉式网络钓鱼 is a small, focused, targeted attack via email on a particular person or organization with the goal to penetrate their defenses. 鱼叉式网络钓鱼攻击是在对目标进行研究之后进行的,它有一个特定的个性化组件,旨在让目标做一些违背其自身利益的事情. Here is more about 他们是如何做到的.


欺骗或欺骗计算机系统或其他计算机用户. This is typically done by hiding one’s identity or faking the identity of another user on the Internet. E-mail spoofing involves sending messages from a bogus e-mail address or faking the e-mail address of another user. Since people are much more likely to read a message from an address they know, hackers will often spoof addresses to trick the recipient into taking action they would not normally take.


“敏捷”软件开发中使用的术语,也是KnowBe4使用的一种方法. 一个月的一段时间,在此之后可交付产品已准备好交付. During this sprint, a list of items called ‘backlog’ is ‘burned down’ to completion. 参见“积压”和“燃尽”.


An umbrella term for many ‘families’ of malicious software which send a computer user’s 保密 data back to (usually) cyber criminals. 一些间谍软件的例子是木马,广告软件,恶意工具栏,和许多其他. 关于间谍软件的简短历史,请查看 this item on Wikipedia. 它不完整,但提供了一个合理的概述.

SQL Injection Attack

SQL injection is a hacker technique that exploits a security vulnerability occurring in the database of an application. 当用户输入字段没有被很好地检查时,漏洞就会出现.

StopBadware works with its network of partner organizations and individuals to fight back against viruses, spyware, 和其他badware. 你可以找到 them here


(IEEE) Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements.

Stu’s Rules


  • 第一次就做好吗
  • Do it fast
  • Have fun while you do it!


Malware created by the U.美国和以色列的目标是摧毁伊朗在纳坦兹的铀浓缩设施. 它逃脱了,现在被坏人用来攻击网站. More Here

Supply Chain Attack

supply chain attack, also called a value-chain 或第三方 attack, 当有人通过能够访问您的系统和数据的外部合作伙伴或提供商侵入您的系统时发生, or provides you with tools that bad actors can compromise and use those tools to penetrate your network. 


Specialized software modules that look at the PC and make sure nothing gets changed by malware, 有时可以阻止更改或将系统恢复到原始状态. See ‘Active Protection’.


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Terms Of Service (abbreviated as “ToS” or “TOS”) are rules by which one must agree to abide by in order to use a service. 通常,这些条款具有法律约束力. 服务条款可以涵盖一系列问题, 包括可接受的用户在线行为, 公司的营销政策, etc. 一些组织, 比如雅虎和Facebook, 是否可以在不通知用户的情况下更改服务条款. Here is Knowbe4的服务条款


传输控制协议/互联网协议. 这是因特网用来从一台计算机到另一台计算机传输数据包的协议.


Uses browser tabs to impersonate legitimate websites and create fake login pages that trick victims into revealing private information. 当你在浏览器中打开两个或更多的标签时,Tabnabbing就会起作用. 当一个帐单无人值守几分钟时, tabnabber可以将无人值守的TAB中的站点重定向到不同的站点, malicious login site.


一种被 社会工程师 进入建筑物或其他受保护的区域. A tailgater waits for an authorized user to open and pass through a secure entry and then follows right behind.


Telnet发明于1969年,是最早的互联网标准之一. 这个名字是“电传打字机网络”的缩写。. Telnet is a communications protocol f或应用程序s that use 2-way interactive text, 使用所谓的“虚拟终端”连接. Telnet runs on top of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

从历史上看, Telnet provided access to a command-line interface (usually, 指操作系统)在远程计算机上. However, 因为在开放网络(如Internet)上使用Telnet时存在严重的安全问题, 它用于此目的的使用已经明显减少,转而支持SSH.

The term telnet is also used to refer to the software that implements the client part of the protocol. Telnet client applications are available for virtually all computer platforms. Telnet也用作动词. telnet是指通过telnet协议建立连接,如“修改密码”, telnet to the server, 登录后,执行passwd命令." 在维基百科


(IEEE)一种软件模块,用来调用被测试的模块, often, provide test inputs, 控制和监视执行, and report test results.

Test Suite

用于验证产品行为的测试用例集合. 例如,对于一个特定的产品,可能有几个测试套件. 在大多数情况下 however a Test Suite is a high level concept, grouping together possibly hundreds or even thousands of test cases related by what they are intended to test.

Tower Dump

许多执法机构使用一种叫做“塔倾倒”的监视策略.这种方法让警方得以了解“身份”, 用户的活动和位置”数据,并利用多个(手机)发射塔, and wireless providers, 并且可以从成千上万的手机中获取信息. 记录显示,至少有25个警察局拥有一个“黄貂鱼”设备——它本质上是一个假的手机发射塔,用来从附近连接到它的手机中抽取数据. 这就是最终成功的方法 凯文·米特尼克.


The word "tradecraft" is most often associated with spies. But hackers hackers and 社会工程师 also have their tradecraft: a set of techniques they use to get illegal access to hardware, software, 或欺骗人类.


导致执行病毒有效载荷的条件, 通常是通过用户交互发生的.g.比如打开文件、运行程序、点击电子邮件附件等).


特洛伊木马(缩写为Trojan), 非自我复制的恶意软件是否看似为用户提供了一个理想的功能,但却为未经授权的访问用户的计算机系统提供了便利. 这个词来源于希腊神话中的特洛伊木马故事. 它是2010-2014年期间最流行的恶意软件形式, 超过50%的恶意软件是木马.


木马下载程序是一个典型的程序安装通过利用或一些其他欺骗手段,促进下载和安装其他恶意软件到受害者的电脑上. 木马下载程序可能下载广告软件, 来自互联网上多个服务器或源的间谍软件或其他恶意软件. 见“利用”.


一种软件工具,可以生成一份拼写错误和常见拼写错误的列表,例如域名. (i.e. These domain names are then used to create a perfect copy of the original, 用户被骗留下机密信息. 这只是使用错别字生成器的一个例子,可能还有更多的例子.


Purchasing web domains that are a character or two different from a legitimate and well-known social or company website. 当一个人打错了网址, a website appears that looks very much like the intended site. 排版通常是出于欺骗的目的. 也称为URL劫持.


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一种减少web url大小和复杂性的方法,主要是为了方便使用. However, 网址缩短 also disguises a website’s real domain name, 并阻止检测已知的恶意网站或目的地.


一个USB记忆棒,经常用于渗透测试, with malware on it that exposes the network to the attacker. Also called Thumb-drive. 车道留在公共区域,如停车场或洗手间, 并且有一个标签,让用户想要知道更多, e.g. “Q1裁员名单”.


对印刷软件模块的测试, syntactic, 和逻辑错误, 为了正确实现其设计, 并满足它的要求. 也称为组件测试.


软件“更新”通常是一个补丁. A patch is a piece of software designed to fix problems with a computer program or its supporting data. It can include fixing security 漏洞 and other bugs, 以及提高可用性或性能.


术语“升级”指的是用同一个产品的新版本替换一个产品. In software, 它的意思是用更新或更好的版本替换, 为了使系统更新或改进其功能. 参见(并对比)上面的“更新”.


用于评估机器/用户界面的测试. 通信设备的设计是否使信息以一种可理解的方式显示,使操作员能够正确地与系统交互?


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A value-added reseller (VAR) is a company that adds features or services to an existing product, then resells it (usually to end-users) as an integrated product or complete "turn-key" solution.


这代表“病毒公告100%通过”. It means an Antivirus product catches all the malware that is on the WildList 也没有假阳性. Getting awarded the VB100 is important in the industry and shows a product has attained a certain quality level. It does not mean it catches 100%, no antivirus product does. Here is the 病毒公报 website.


虚拟桌面基础设施(VDI)允许用户的桌面和应用程序运行在数据中心服务器上的私有虚拟机上,而不是用户的本地pc上. 它在技术上复杂且昂贵, but it allows users to access their personalized desktop from any PC; and makes life easy for admins.


Vendor Email Compromise. This is a variety of business email compromise (see BEC) attack in which attackers gain access to email accounts at a company in the supply chain, and then use the accounts to target that company’s customers.


Virtual Private Network. VPN词汇表:解释的所有关键术语和术语


Virtual Machine  (VM)

A computer resource that runs programs inside a software created “virtual” operating environment rather than on a physical computer. Each virtual machine runs as a separate computing environment, 允许不同的操作系统在同一“主机”机器上同时工作. 虚拟机甚至可以在云上提供虚拟的应用资源.


计算机病毒是一种可以自我复制并感染计算机的计算机程序. “病毒”一词也常被错误地用来指其他类型的恶意软件, adware, 间谍软件程序也没有繁殖能力. 自2009年以来,传统形式的病毒在总恶意软件中所占比例不到10%. 2010年,微软估计这一比例仅为4%. A true virus can only spread from one computer to another (in some form of executable code) when its host (infected file) is taken to the target computer; for instance because a user sent it over a network or the Internet, 或者把它(通过sneakernet)放在软盘之类的可移动介质上, CD, DVD, 或USB驱动器. Viruses can increase their chances of spreading to other computers by infecting files on a network file system. See ‘Worm’. 看到维基百科.


Vi俄文公告 is the world’s first and foremost virus and malware authority, 也是反病毒产业的首选之地.

他们做三件事:1)月刊, 2)年度会议和3)两月一次的产品认证.

1)他们的名字来自他们1989年开始做的第一件事: a magazine dedicated to providing PC users with a regular source of intelligence about computer malware, 其预防, d作弊, removal, 以及如何在受到攻击后恢复程序和数据. 病毒公报 quickly became the leading specialist publication in the field of malware and spam and is today produced in an online format.

2) VB会议. They first VB conference was in 1991 and the event has become a major highlight of the anti-malware calendar. 他们呈现真实的信息, 演示防御程序和对策, and provide a platform for experts share their research and set new standards.

3) “VB100″ certification
多年来, 病毒公告对反恶意软件产品进行了独立的对比测试. 独特的VB100认证在业内得到广泛认可. 病毒公报 tests anti-malware products free of charge and, 与其他认证计划不同, 不允许重新测试-性能报告准确地作为他们发现.

第三个函数非常有趣. 他们的VB100代表“病毒公告100%通过”. It means an Antivirus product catches all the malware that is on the WildList (a varying list of around 800 malware samples that are ‘in the wild’, 由病毒公告野生列表委员会整理的. AV产品有望捕获WildList中的所有样本), 也没有假阳性. Getting awarded the VB100 is important in the AV industry and shows a product has attained a certain quality level. It does not mean it catches 100%, no antivirus product does.


病毒特征码(检测结果)数据库, patterns) that allows an antivirus product to recognize and disinfect viruses. These definitions are created by an AV Lab team and send to PC’s running that Antivirus very regularly.


Virustotal是一个提供分析可疑文件、快速检测病毒的服务的网站, worms, trojans, 以及检测到的各种恶意软件 about 70 different antivirus companies that scan the file so you basically get the opinion of many different security companies at once. 不管是好人还是坏人都在使用Virustotal. The bad guys send their malware up there to see if it gets caught by antivirus engines. 它有免费和付费的许可版本,由谷歌拥有. 你可以找到 them here.


通过电话进行的网络钓鱼攻击, 通常是针对IP语音(VoIP)用户, such as Skype users. Vishing 手机是否等同于网络钓鱼攻击. 这有两种形式,人工和自动化. 在人类的例子中,一个诈骗艺术家利用电话的匿名性,假装是他们目标的银行或信用卡公司的代表. 他们操纵受害者输入他们的密码, 信用卡号码, or bank account (and routing number) with the phone keypad. 这使得骗子可以立即获得另一个人的银行凭证.

It’s also known as rogue “IVR” (Interactive Voice Response) and that is where it gets automated. 这些坏人利用一个IVR系统来模拟一个真实的金融机构的IVR系统. Using a phishing email, 受害者被告知用他们的免费电话号码打电话给“银行”, 这样假银行就可以“核实”一些信息. A normal trick is that the system is configured to throw fake error messages so that the victim will try several passwords to get in. 更复杂的骗局甚至有一个活生生的人假扮客服,以防受害者按下“0”表示接线员.


对整个网络进行扫描,查找并报告端点和所有其他网络设备中的已知漏洞. 有两种扫描,内部扫描和外部扫描. 内部是由管理员或已经渗透到网络并寻找更多途径进入和停留在网络内部的坏人在网络内部运行的. External从外向内扫描公司,查看网站和他们的网络应用程序. KnowBe4 provides the external, outside-in type of scan as a service.

Voicemail overloading 

通过网络电话发送垃圾邮件. 就像收到垃圾邮件一样,VoIP用户也能收到垃圾语音邮件. 垃圾邮件发送者只是一次向数千个IP地址发送语音邮件.


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What You See Is What You Get - A term in the computer world that means you are working in an environment that is visual. 作为一个例子, 当你在WYSIWYG编辑器中编辑东西时, 你可以看到这些变化和它们的样子, (例如文字处理程序)而不是HTML编辑器,在HTML编辑器中,你工作在代码中, 你需要将代码渲染到网页中 see 您在代码中所做的更改. 


A Wake-on-LAN (WoL) is a networking standard that allows a computer to be turned on or awakened by a network message.  该信息通常由连接到同一局域网的设备上执行的程序发送到目标计算机, 甚至可能是管理员的智能手机. 该技术也可用于广域网, 甚至wi - fi, 无线局域网唤醒(WoWLAN)的标准 在维基百科.


A technique by which a computer will dial a number repeatedly in a telephone exchange in an attempt to circumvent perimeter security.


I saw this post 在推特上用一个有趣的、有教育意义的信息图表显示,这是一个非常复杂的事情,很多事情都可能出错.  这是信息图,如果你点击它,它会放大:


Stand-alone software or an appliance (hardware+software) that blocks access to specific Internet websites. A survey done by KnowBe4 shows that system administrators want web filtering on their network for the following reasons:

  • 阻止访问恶意软件网站
  • 阻止访问不适当或破坏性的网站
  • 让用户“专注于任务”意味着生产力
  • 在AV之外增加另一层防御
  • Reduce network bandwidth
  • 保持人力资源快乐


A commercial organization that tests AV products to see if those products catch all the samples in the WildList. 如果一个产品得到了所有的样品,就获得了认证. Here is 他们的网站.


Phishing attacks that target high-ranking executives at major organizations or other highly visible public figures. 也被称为 CEO Fraud.


The list of known good files that Antivirus knows do not have to be scanned and should not be quarantined. 也可以适用于域名,哪些是众所周知的好和允许访问. Also, 一个已知良好的可执行文件列表,允许在启用了应用程序控制的环境中继续运行.


一个大约800个“在野外”的恶意软件样本的不同列表, 由病毒公告野生列表委员会整理的. AV products are expected to catch all samples that are in the WildList.

Windows System Files

System Files are the files that make up the Operating System. 在Windows 2000中,系统文件保护(WFP)保护这些文件不被删除或感染, 在Windows XP中改名为Windows文件保护(WFP), 然后是Windows资源保护(WRP)在Vista和以后. WRP引入了对注册表的保护.


A free service from Microsoft that regularly updates your PC with the latest bugfixes and security patches and then reboots the PC. 对于消费者来说,它是高度推荐的设置为自动. Microsoft does this on the second Tuesday of the month, called 星期二补丁. Businesses should use their own centralized update server, 在他们的环境中测试补丁的兼容性问题之后.


OK, We are going from generic to specific here for this definition. 首先,工作流(也称为工作流)是 活动或项目的核心区域. It's a core process, it can be big and it can be small, depending on where you look. 下面是一个更真实的例子. 如果你在计划一场婚礼,那是一个项目. 它有一个开始和结束的日期,它将涉及多个涉众和许多工作流. 一个重要的问题是选择宴会承办商. In this instance the workstream 会被命名为“餐饮”哪个是核心流程. The activities within this workstream would be the following:

  • 会见备办食物者
  • Plan 5 course meal
  • First tasting session
  • Second tasting session
  • 完成菜单

现在,这是一个有开始和停止的工作流. 在业务中,这是一个连续的过程或流. A workstream example in KnowBe4 would be the core process from a quote to a PO to an invoice and deploying the platform. Now, in different departments , they have their own workstreams and many times dozens of them. 

安全团队也有一系列的工作流,在安全操作中心(见 SOC) one of those is handled by the Incident Response team which receives phishing email reports. 一个员工看到钓鱼邮件,点击的整个过程 PAB, 在PhishER中接收,由分析人员查看,然后处理的是 一个很好的安全工作流的例子.  如果一个组织没有这个安全工作流,他们应该有!


计算机蠕虫是一种自我复制的计算机程序. It uses a network to send copies of itself to other nodes (computers on the network) and it may do so without any user intervention. 与病毒不同,它不需要将自己附加到现有的文件上. Worms almost always cause at least some harm to the network, 如果只是通过消耗带宽, whereas viruses almost always corrupt or modify files on a targeted computer. 蠕虫能以闪电般的速度传播. One worm was able to infect hundreds of thousands of servers worldwide in less than 10 minutes.


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扩展检测和响应(也见EDR) XDR是一种新的方法 threat 检测和响应Gartner称之为 2020年安全和风险管理的最高趋势. It combines elements of Security I信息和 Event Management (SIEM), Security Orchestration, Automation, and Response (SOAR), Endpoint D作弊, Response (EDR), and Network Traffic Analysis (NTA) in a software-as-a-service (SaaS) platform to centralize security data and incident response. This improves and speeds up d作弊, response because it correlates threat intelligence across security products and visibility across networks, clouds, 和端点. (Read 这篇文章 for more)

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YARA (yär-əh): [PhishER]

又是一个可笑的缩略语,又是一个递归的缩略语. Officially, YARA is a tool for malware researchers to identify and classify malware. 它使用规则来查找和匹配特定的单词/模式, 并且经常被用来分析可能是恶意的电子邮件信息. 这些规则被方便地称为YARA规则.


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零缺陷反弹. A milestone in software development when all the known bugs are fixed and the bug count drops to zero. 通常情况下,第二天会发现更多的bug,所以bug数量会从0“反弹”起来. 指示器,产品差不多可以出货了.


A zero-day attack is a computer threat that tries to exploit 漏洞 that are unknown to others, 未向软件供应商披露, 或者没有安全修复可用. Bad guys have a field day with zero-day attacks, as there is very little defense against these. 每个软件产品都有许多这样的漏洞, 零日漏洞的交易也很活跃. Both governments spy agencies and cybercrime buy these exploits often for tens of thousands of dollars.


可以使用安全漏洞进行攻击的实际代码. Used or shared by attackers before the software vendor knows about the vulnerability.


一台被恶意软件控制并被坏人“拥有”的电脑. 个人电脑现在是僵尸网络的一部分,可以发送垃圾邮件, 试图感染其他计算机, 攻击网站或做其他邪恶的事情. 美国国家安全局等政府间谍机构也使用这种策略,他们已经感染了数万台机器,并基本上拥有它们.



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